Mormon Literature Sampler:

Crossing the Plains

Hosea Stout*

Friday May the 8th 1846. Clear & cool good weather. This fore noon I assisted Br E. T. Benson to hew some timber to be sawed into plank to fix his waggons to move on West. In the after noon was not able to be out. The mail came in to day from Nauvoo bringing news that Br O. P. Rockwell had been taken prisoner in Nauvoo and taken to Carthage but have not learned the particulars I suspect that there has been some treachery used by some or he could not have been taken as it seems to me.

Good clear dry weather. I was sick in the fore noon. In the after noon I went out in company with Benjn Jones into the wood being very lonesome and was talking over our feelings when I was sent for and informed that my little son Hyrum was dying. I returned immediately home and found the poor little afflicted child in the last agonies of death. He died in my arms about four o'clock. This was the second child which I had lost both dying in my arms. He died with the hooping cough & black canker He had worn down ever since he first took it as before mentioned. I shall not attempt to say anything about my feelings at this time because my family is still afflicted. My wife is yet unable to go about & little Hosea my only son now is wearing down with the same complaint and what will be the end thereof. I have fearful forboding of coming evil on my family yet. We are truly desolate & and afflicted and entirely destitute of any thing even to eat much less to nourish the sick & just able to go about my self. Arraingements were made to bury him this evening.

Business was lively at this time. There was a long string of log houses now being put up on the East & on the west of the farm for the accommodation of those who were going to stay which gave the appearance of a civilized country again.

Sunday May the 10th 1846. Warm clear and dry weather.

Attended to the funeral obsequeys of my child about ten or Eleven o'clock

About the same time meeting commenced Jeddediah M. Grant spoke on the first principles of the gospel. There was quite a number of Gentile men & women here today at meeting & hence his sermon I was at meeting a short time and went home. There was another meeting in the after noon. President B. Young spoke on the subject of the ownership of the Farm least there might be some difficulty about it hereafter. It was however voted by the congregation that as it was made by those who were going on for the benefit of the poor who should follow that those who go on should own it subject to the Presidency who should be left in charge of affairs here.

Monday May the 11th 1846. I was uncommonly sick this morning & had some bodily symptoms of being confined with a hard spell of sickness consequently by the advice of Doctor Chandler Rogers I consented to take a regular course of Lobelia.1 This was the first time ever I had taken it. & it made me so weak & nervous that I could not raise my head and my stomach so irritable that I could not take all that was designed for me It however helped me. William Hunter came from grand river with some meal for me which was indeed greatly needed

Tuesday May the 12th 1846. I was very sick and feeble yet. Jesse D. Hunter came home from Grand river to day with the teams which we sent there from Locus Creek by J. W. Binley to fed on corn and prepared for the journey but instead of that he had rode the horses down & they came back much reduced instead of being improved. In fact I learned from Hunter what had been reported ever since he was gone, that is he was acting the rascall in every thing he went about. Instead of making reports to me as he was to as he had charge of my men he reported to President Young & endeavoured thus to make court to him by running by me & telling my men all the time that it was understood between him & me & that he was recieving letters of instructions from me from time to time which was a most palpable lie When Hunter went down there he settled all difficulties between him and the men as he did not wish the work to be stayed notwithstanding Binley's rascality but more hereafter I was able to walk to the East of the farm today and my health and strength improving A part of the camp commenced to move today and crossed the bridge and most of the ballance were preparing to go. About dark it clouded up and rained again to the great anoyance of those who intended to move

Wednesday May the 13th 1846. Most of the camp moved on to day Just as President Young was starting2 he called at my tent and enquired into my & Hunter's circumstances & we told him He then said for us to do the best we could to move on and he would send back for us as soon as he could and that he wanted me to continue to keep charge of the public arms

This entirely broke up our arraingements for there had been nothing said to me or Hunter about what was required of us & we were like to be left here without any requisition upon us by the authorities in the event of which we intended to tarry here and raise a crop as our means were now about exhausted, but this order made it obligatory on us to go on so we had to calculate accordingly My health was better to day

I sent Green Taylor & William C. McLelland back today with the two waggons which I moved here in leaving me without any but the gun waggons to move in & they were full of the publick arms hence I was in a poor situation to move. In the evening it rained again William H. Edwards died today. He was one of the pioneers and was appointed Contractor for the first 50 in the Second hundred as organized at or near Chariton on the 27th of March last. He was one of the "old Police at the time that it was first organized under Joseph Smith Mayor and Johnathan Dunham High Police man in December 1843 and served as such untill he was led away with James Emmett in his uncouncilled exit to the wilderness in the fall of 1844. He was in all the troubles in June when our prophet & patriarch Joseph & Hyrum was assassinated & stood firm in all these difficulties I have faced the chilling blast many a winter night with him in Nauvoo guarding the city against our foes from within & without. He left Emmett and returned to Nauvoo in 1845 and seemed willing to do his duty faithfully from that time till his death This was a wet night

Thursday May the 14th 1846. Cold North wind today & cloudy but clear in the afternoon

This last requisition of President Young yesterday made it necessary for Hunter and me to calculate fast so we concluded for him to go to Grand river again for another supply of provisions before we went on and he accordingly started to day in the meintime I was to keep every thing right in camp as well as I could although I was yet very weak and feeble....

Saturday, Sunday, Monday & Tuesday the 23rd, 24th 25th & 26th of May. I was in and about home weak and feeble & just able to look after my cows and horses. No news of importance.

During this time my little & only son Hosea seemed to be growing worse & his cough seemed to be settling on his lungs I repaired little Hyrum's grave on Tuesday as I expected to start soon & never see it again.

Wednesday May the 27th 1846. This evening we had as unusual hard rain storm The water came down in torrents wetting almost every thing in the tents which made my child worse

In the midst of the rain & gross darkness Pleasant Green Taylor, my wife's brother came to the tent wet thoroughly. It was very unexpected to us. He said that his mother and all his folks were eight miles from here and on their way to the next farm. He said also that there was a war between the United States and Mexico and a great excitement in the state about raising troops to March to the relief of General Taylor in Texas who had already had two battles with the Mexicans. I confess that I was glad to learn of war against the United States and was in hopes that it might never end untill they were entirely destroyed for they had driven us into the wilderness & was now laughing at our calamities.

Thursday May the 28th 1846. The weather was warm & pleasant with broken clouds. Job Hall & William Taylor returned with the teams after Hunter had arrived in safety to the next camp. So we immediately set about being off About ten o'clock we started and went eight or nine miles and camped in the prairie. It rained some to night but not so as to distress us.

Today my wife was able to walk a short distance and occasionally ride on horse back which was the first time she was able to move otherwise than in a bed made down in a waggon

It seemed like new life to see her even thus recovering from a long sickness....

Sunday May the 31st 1846. This morning all was well & I concluded to go on to camp on horse back it being about 15 miles for I had understood that President Young was going on tomorrow & I wanted to see him before he went on to know what he wanted me to do next as I had now fulfilled his last order to me which was to come on I started about 9 o'clock and came into camp about twelve and found the Saints at meeting all seemed cheerful

This was a wet disagreeable evening All things in relation to Hunter and myself were about as usual

This evening Br Noah Rogers died. He was a captain of ten in the guard He returned home to Nauvoo from a three years mission last winter to the Sandwic islands He was a good man and a faithful captain while under me in the guard. I staid at Benjamin Jones all night.

Monday June the 1st 1846. It rained and blew very hard till noon and then ceased. My family came in the evening. They camped last night on a hill in the prairie and had a very disagreeable time of it. I went to the North of this place to hunt a location with Chandler Rogers and came back and went East with Hunter and there found one to suit me

It was in a beautiful grove of small hickory and formed a pleasant shade and was a delightful place. Here Hunter and myself intended to build & put in a crop such as would come to maturity at this late time of planting.

This place was called Mount Pisgah and the main settlement was situated on a long ridge running North & South. To the west was a large deep valley or bottom land of good prairie and was now being plowed & planted while all the adjoining glades and groves were teeming with men & cattle engaged in the busy hum of improving and planting The whole woods & prairie seemed alive to business & a continual streem of emegration pouring in which looked like the entire country would be inhabited as a city in a short time

Tuesday June the 2nd 1846. President Young started to day to the Council Bluffs. Some of his teams however were gone before about four miles and encamped. He did not say any thing to us as to what we must do. So we went to arraingeing matters for farming in good earnest

About noon General Charles C. Rich came to me with a written order signed by Brigham as Lieutenant General ordering him to take the public arms into his possession and put them in good order and send them on by "Col Stout or some trusty officer" He wanted to know what I could do I told him the situation of my family and circumstances and he thought it could not be required of me to leave my family under such circumstances and thus released me from going & I then went and showed him the guns and desired him to take them away. He had a like order to take the artillery from Scott.

I confess that I did not understand the object of this move neither did I care for it released me from all public care and responsibility and I felt like a free man with nothing on my mind but to contrive how to take care of my family for the best Accordingly Hunter and myself went and laid the foundation of a house a piece on our beautiful location and was going to move to it as soon as our cattle could be found. But however before our cattle were found President Young having returned to this place came to see us. He wanted us to go on with the guns and leave our families here and wanted to know what we could do about it We told him we were always ready to obey him, and would do any thing which our circumstances would permit He then enquired into our situation very particularly & found us to be very destitute, and after giving Hunter some money as he had none told us to buy provision for our families untill we could return and come as soon as we could and left us. Here again we were entirely disconcerted and now all together gave up the idea of raising a crop and it seemed that it was designed by some other ruling power that we should not "Sow nor reap" neither enjoy the peace and happiness of a private life any more. We saw nothing but a long train of public cares and responsibility hanging over us for we knew it would not end at the Bluffs.

Wednesday June the 3rd 1846. This morning Br George W. Harris left me and went on because matters took such a turn that he thought it would be to long & uncertain to wait for us to go.

In the evening with Br Miles Anderson I went to where Brigham was encamped four miles on ahead to see him about how to arrainge for my family. He told me to bring them along or any part of them if I could for it would save having to send back for them and that Genl Rich had orders from him to fit me out so I came home and commenced to fix to go as soon as I could.

Thursday June the 4th 1846. I went to see General Rich this morning about the waggons for the guns and having lumber sawed for preparing them according to Brigham's orders and was engaged at it most of the day. Alen Stout went to the settlements today with his father-in-law Miles Anderson and was going to stay there and take care of some cattle for him untill he went to Nauvoo after his family when Anderson would bring him on. I sent B. Jones along to Bring up a yoke of church oxen which were there to draw the gun waggons.

Friday June the 5th 1846. Was hunting after some one to saw some lumber today as we had prepared logs and trying to obtain help from Rich who never even used his influence to assist me much less fit me out as Br Brigham had ordered him.

Saturday June the 6th 1846. Was after Br Rich again to no purpose for he still evaded any help or using any influence However I got some lumber sawed and commenced work at my waggons.

Sunday June the 7th 1846. Was at meeting Br O. Hyde was there and spoke to the people Most of the time was taken up in procuring teams & means to fit out the Twelve This was according to council But there was nothing said about the guns and I plainly saw that Br Rich did not intend to do any thing for me

It appeared that he thought that I was obliged to take them any how & if I got no help it would only be my own trouble.

Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday the 8th, 9th and 10th of June. I was engaged in preparing the waggons.

Saturday June the 20th 1846. This morning I went some three miles to Henry Mours [Mowers] camp to see Br. S. Wixom to try and get some meal for hunger began to grin hard around us but I got none and was now entirely out and knew not where the next meal would come from so my wife went to preparing our dinner which might be properly called our "ultimatum" It consisted of a small portion of seed beans & a little bacon boild and made into soup we had flour enough to set it out & in fact we this last time as it seemed had a more luxurious & sumptious table than usual which made to a stranger an appearance of plenty. Just as it was ready Elder Henry G. Sherwood & Jas W Cummings rode up very hungry I invited them to stop and turn out their horses & rest and take dinner to which they readily consented little thinking that they were going to help make away with all I had and then leave me in this wild & desolate place to risk the kind hand of Providence for the next. We had a joyful time and plenty to eat but none left They were on their return to Nauvoo after their families in case they did not meet them on their way. Br Jas W Cummings was now on his return from the mission with John L. Butler to James Emmett as mentioned on the 25th of last march at the Chariton, Br Cummings reported that when he got there he found that Emmett was absent having gone to some of the neighbouring Indians to trade off some horses and consequently he had no trouble with him. But some of his company were yet strong advocates for him & some as hard against him among the latter was his wife who was tired of his oppression & tyranny.

The two parties were about equally divided. Some of the party however having gone before to the settlements near or above Fort Leavenworth. They managed to get all of those who were yet there to move down to where we were to cross the Missouri at the Bluffs not however without considerable opposition from Emmetts adherents. Suffise it to say that they all left and came off and brought every thing with them and left Emmett to guess at what had happened & follow on or do whatever else he thought best. They had all come to the Council Bluffs & Emmett followed on and was here striped of his kingdom and him & all his followers put under Bishop Miller and sent on to Grand Island. Thus ended the reign of this man who sought to divide and to lead off the Saints &c

After our "ultimatum" was ultimately used up & we had all joyfully feasted & enjoyed ourselves sufficiently they went on & I also prepared to go by attaching my little waggon to one of my large ones for the want of a harness & one of the girls took charge of the horses Thus arranged we started slowly on our way. Previously to our starting however I made out to procure of those who had encamped here last night some bread stuff to last a day or so. We started about three o'clock leaving them here for their waggon was broke down. Dailey had lied most shamefully about there being a good camping place three miles ahead for we traveled on untill night & went about eight miles & encamped in the praire and no signs of timber yet

Sunday June the 21st 1846. We started very earley this morning on our way we met Thomas Williams, who was on his way from the Council Bluffs to Pisgah with an express to Genl Rich. He said that it was to raise men to send over the Mountains. That it was contemplated to raise a guard of four hundred men, a sufficient number, as it was deemed, to protect those who were moving, against the depredations of the Indians and this was the object of the express There could not be the requisite number raised at the Bluffs because there had not a sufficient number come on & hence the express. They intended to go on in time to put in wheat this fall.

We traveled on very steady untill about noon and came to a beautiful little grove in the midst of a boundless praire as it looked Here we found Br Billings and those who were with him encamped They had stoped to was and fix up and so we overtook them. The prairie which we had last passed was 15 or 20 miles across. Mostly a level good road.

We put up here for the day & found Br Billings and most of those with him very kind and accomodating and more especially when they found that we were sick and afflicted as we were

In the evening Brs Orson Spencer & C. Shelton came on and encamped here also. which made a very large company.

Monday June the 22nd 1846. This morning we all went on and made a good day's travel going perhaps 18 or 20 miles. We crossed the Little Platte to day and went on two or three miles and encamped in the prairie on a small stream.

Tuesday June the 23rd 1846. We also made a good days travel to day and came to the Nodaway and there encamped

We passed by Henry W. Miller's company to day who were encamped while they went down to the settlements to trade for provisions. Here we saw several Indians which was the first that we had seen since we left Nauvoo Today was a dark day at times raining some but good for traveling.

Wednesday June the 24th 1846. We lay up to day it being a wet day. In the evening Bunnell & Clark drove up in the rain with their companies. this now made a very large encampment

Thursday June the 25th 1846. The weather was still heavy and like for rain There was quite a number of Indians came to camp to day some we fed They were all friendly

Little Hosea was all this time on the decline and the laying on of hands seemed to do but little or no good....

The water came in torrents & the wind blew hard. In a few minutes our tent was down & the water ran through the waggon covers and thus every thing we had was wet almost before we knew it.

The beds were also wet and Hosea was soon discovered by his mother to be lying in water so fast did it come in on the bed. He was immediately taken worse and thus our last hopes for him vanished

The rain continued an hour or so and before dark the Nodaway was out of its banks notwithstanding it is a stream That is very deep being about twenty feet banks. The bridge across it is about 8 or nine feet below the surface of the level ground and it was thought by us before this rise that the water would never come up to the bridge. At dark the bottom was like one continued sea and some of the tents and waggons standing in the water.

Friday June the 26th 1846. To day the weather was cloudy & sun-shine alternately The Nodaway had not fallen much. The ground yet flooded and the whole camp seemed to be driping in water.

There was many friendly Indians came & went to day. My child was more dangerously ill. Br William Clayton came here from the Bluffs going to Pisgah & Thomas Williams on his return from Pisgah to the Bluffs both water bound

Br Clayton crossed by flotting his things over in his waggon bed & swimming his horses which took a long time for there could be but little taken in at once & Williams swam his horse & thus both crossed to day. There was a continual crossing of the Indians all day swimming their horses which seemed to be but little disadvantage to them to come to a stream out of its bands.

The stream before night had fallen some five or six feet.

Saturday June the 27th 1846. Clear and warm. My child was still worse The water falling very slowly. It had not yet uncovered the bridge

Some of the brethren went today to the next creek about four miles to see what was the prospect of crossing there and found it much larger than the Nodaway and still rising and the bridge either gone or damaged so that we could not cross on it

There was plenty of Indians here today They were going to the Buffalo country to kill their winter meat It is about one hundered miles and among the Souix Indians with whom all other tribes are at war These are Pottawottamies & Musquakas. They not only expect to kill all the buffalo they can but also all the Souix. So it is a war expidition as well as a buffalo hunt.

My child seemed strangely affected to night after laying hands on him we found him to [be] troubled with evil spirits who I knew now were determined on his destruction He would show all signs of wrath to wards me & his mother and appearantly try to talk. His looks were demoniac accopanied by the most frightful gestures I ever saw in a child. His strength was greater than in the days of his health.

At times I felt almost to cowl at his fierce ghastly & horrid look and even felt to withdraw from the painful scene for truly the powers of darkness now prevailed here. We were shut up in the waggon with nothing to behold or contemplate but this devoted child thus writhing under the power of the destroyer It was now late in the night & he getting worse when we came to the conclusion to lay hands on him again that the powers of darkness might be rebuked if he could not be raised up. Thus alone my wife & me over our only and dearest son struggled in sorrow and affliction with this last determination that we would not yield with the portion of the Priesthood which we had to the evil spirits After laying hands on him and rebuking the evil spirits he took a Different course He ceased to manifest a desire to talk & his ghastly and frightful gestures and with a set and determined eye gazed at me as if concious of what had been done

We thus beheld him a long time until finally he became easy and went to sleep Late at night we went to sleep also leaving a burning candle in the waggon.

Sunday June the 28th 1846. I awoke very early this morning and immediately discovered my child to be dying. He seemed perfectly easy and now had given up to the struggle of death and lay breathing out his life sweetly. The evil spirits had entirely left him and he now had his natural, easy, pleasant, calm and usual appearance but death was in his contenance and his little spirit now in the enjoyment of its own body only seemed loth to give it up as almost every one seemed involuntary to observe who was present. He gradually and slowly declined untill forty minutes after seven when its spirit took its leave of its body without any appearant pain but seemed to go to sleep.

Thus died my only son and one too on whom I had placed my own name and was truly the dearest object of my heart. Gone too in the midst of affliction sorrow & disappointment In the wild solitary wilderness. Surrounded by every discouraging circumstance that is calculated to make man unhappy and disconsolate. Without the necessarys of life, Without even our daily bread and no prospects for the future. There in this wild land to lay him where the silence of his peaceful grave would only be broken by the savage yells of the natives seemed to come in bold relief before us. Discouraged, desolate & such frequent disappointments as had lately been my lot and no reason to expect any thing better in future could now only occupy my mind & the mind of my wife the bereaved mother We had now only one child a daughter left & that was born on the road & what was its fate was it to be laid by the way side also & we left uterly destitute & disconsolate

I have often heard people tell of loosing the darling object of thier heart. I have often heard of people mourning as for the loss of an only son But never untill now did I fully feel and realize the keen & heart rending force of their words. I have once lost a companion for life and left without a bosom friend Left alone to lock sorrow and disappointment up in my own breast. Left to smile in the midst of the merry & happy but to smile only to hide and disguise the effects of an overflowing heart of woe. But not then did I feel the loss or mourn as for an only son. This last loss. This loss of my only son. This my hopes for comfort in my old age. This the darling object of my heart gone seemed to cap the climax of all my former misfortunes and seemed more than all else to leave me uterly hopeless. But I shall ceace to indulge in my feelings any longer

Suffice it to say that every attention and kindness was now proffered to me that I needed on the occasion. There was a good coffin made for him. After which we all moved on and buried him on a hill in the prairie about one mile from the Nodaway where there was the grave of an infant of Br John Smith and then pursued our journey leaving the two lovely innocents to slumber in peace in this solitary wild untill we should awake them in the morn of the resurrection We traveled four miles and encamped on a ridge in sight of one of the Pottawattamy villages. In the evening some of the brethren went to the next creek or river to see what the prospects were for crossing and found the bridge impassable and decided to build a new one This stream is called the Nishanabothany by the whites and Nickanabotany by the Indians and is a very large stream and now out of its banks and very deep and muddy.

Br Phinehas R. Wright came on to day from Pisgah He informed me that there were some officers of the United States Army at Pisgah with a requisition from the President of the United States, on us for 500 soldiers to march to Santa Fe against Mexico & from thence to California & there to be discharged and their arms given in at the expiration of one year. This officer's name was Jas Allen Capt of the First Dragoons He had issued a circular to the mormons making known the object of his visit

We were all very indignant at this requisition and only looked on it as a plot laid to bring trouble on us as a people. For in the event that we did not comply with the requisition we supposed they would now make a protest to denounce us as enemies to our country and if we did comply that they would then have 500 of our men in their power to be destroyed as they had done our leaders at Carthage. I confess that my feelings was uncommonly wrought up against them This was the universal feelings at Pisgah and Genl Rich sent me word by Br Wright to keep a sharp look out for him as he passed and see that he did not get any knowledge of the public arms which I had. For he supposed that he might be looking after them. Such was our feelings towards the President &c

This officer passed here today but I did not see him as I was encamped some distance from the road.

In the evening There was large numbers of Indians came into camp all friendly and seemed to understand perfectly well the nature of our move and also our ultimate union with them & our return to the lands of our inheritants &c &c.

Monday June the 29th 1846. To day all the men who possibly could leave their camps went down to work at the bridge I did not go but staid at home to fix up and arrainge my affairs as they were now much out of order

Tuesday June the 30th 1846. Today I worked on the bridge. There was plenty of hands even more than could work to advantage. They had appointed a Foreman but all would not yield their oppinions to him and consequently there was much contention and confusion amongst them & but little done. They under took to build a Frame bridge and this evening failed to sink a bent into the deep water and abandoned it & thus lost all that had been done thus far

This morning Elder Parley P. Pratt came here accompanied by Solomon Hancock3 on their way to Pisgah to try and forward the expidition to the Mountains and instructed us to push on with all possible speed that if we did not get to the Bluffs by the time that he returned it would be needful for us to go on and leave our families such was the necessity to push forward this expidition. The reason of which we could not imagine Neither did he as the sequel will soon prove.

As Elders Pratt & Hancock came here this morning they came to creek about one mile the other side of the indian village the bridge of which was also gone & our hand [s] now building it as well as this one. In an attempt to cross it by swimming his mule Br Pratt & the mule came very near being drowned. He floted to shore and was so was exhausted that he could not get out. After resting awhile he attempted it again and came near being drowned the second time. I believe he was finally assisted over by some indian boys, not however untill they were satisfied that they were "Good Mormonee" as they called us. He left Br Hancock & went on but he came on and followed as soon as he could. Br Pratt was in such a hurry that he would not wait an hour or so for Br Hancock such was the emergency of his mission.

Wednesday July the 1st 1846. To day all hands went to work at the bridge. Earley in the morning a lot of them met there before the rest and appointed a new Foreman and commenced work. But as soon as the rest came they were not satisfied with him and so they had a new election and appointed a new one again this was Raymond Clark. He was more fortunate than the to others who preceeded him. For all hands went to work under him appearantly well satisfied. His plan was to rebuild the old bridge or in other words to build on the place where the old one was which was on a large raft or as some call it a drift on which the former bridge was built. He succeeded in uniting all the hands in his opinion so that they all went to work and about sun down finished it. This might have been done the first day had the matter been planed & executed as it was today by a competent foreman. At noon I went home and stayed there the rest of the day. On my way home I met a large company of hands coming to work on the bridge these were the men belonging to Henry W. Millers company which had just arrived and encamped Our encampment now was very large The hills were full of our tents & waggons and seemed to be nearley as large as the first camp when it started in February.

Thursday July 2nd 1846. We commenced moving again to day There was a general rush to cross the bridge. Every one seemed to be afraid that he could not get over before it would be gone. Which created a great deal of confusion and some feelings In fact the bridge looked as though it would not last long for as the water [rose] it put in something of a "bad fix"

The next bridge which was about one mile ahead and had also been finished yesterday came very near breaking down. But it was soon arrainged so that it was safe

There was large companies of Indians followed us today for several miles and in fact they thronged around us all the time we were building the bridge & at times would come in droves to the camp but they were very civil friendly & good natured and done none of us any injury while we were here.

They would amuse themselves sometimes by swimming in the creek in large numbers and sometimes at playing cards at which they seemed to be very dexterous. They appeared to be much interested at our opperations while at work which seemed to be a great novelty to them.

We travelled about 18 miles today and encamped in the prairie just after crossing a small deep stream. Here we found a good cool, clear spring of water.

*Hosea Stout (1810-89) was born in the backwoods of Kentucky, received a fair education for the time and place, and taught school at twenty-two in Putnam County, Illinois. In 1834 he met Joseph Smith, and in 1838 he was baptized a member of the Church by Charles C. Rich. He followed the Saints to Missouri, then to Nauvoo, where he was appointed clerk of the high council, the policy-making body of the Church. He was called to live the doctrine of polygamy. After the assassination of Joseph and Hyrum, Stout (as chief of police and officer in the Nauvoo Legion) was assigned the responsibility for the safety of the leaders and the general welfare of the members. In his excellent diary one can trace the exodus of the saints and 'after his settling in Utah' the private and public affairs of a devout Mormon man who served as a member of the territorial legislature. The diary, edited by Juanita Brooks and published in 1964 by the University of Utah Press and the Utah State Historical Society, is invaluable.

1. Lobelia is an herb that was widely used as an emetic and purgative. Dr. Priddy Meeks administered it for many ills and spoke of it as "that blessed Lobelia," but its reactions were so violent that most doctors soon discontinued its use.

2. Brigham Young left the beginnings of a settlement at Garden Grove under the direction of Samuel Bent, David Fullmer, and Aaron Johnson, while he moved ahead to establish another stopping place.

3. Solomon and Levi Hancock, brothers, had been in the Mormon Church almost from the beginning. Solomon worked on the Kirtland Temple, came west with Zion's Camp, and then was selected to return to Kirtland that he might receive his endowments there. At the time of the Missouri troubles, the Hancock brothers were able to secrete and keep sixteen guns, which were later brought to Nauvoo. At Far West the Hancock brothers were considered men of judgment and opposed to violence. The brothers wrote original songs and verses, played the flute and violin, and worked in lumber and shaped wood with their turning lathes. At Nauvoo they lived near the home of Joseph Smith, and he visited them so often that people generally recognized that they had the full confidence of the prophet. That Solomon Hancock, now an older man, should accompany the United States recruiting officer and speak in favor of enlistment into the army was evidence that he had great influence among the people.

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